Text on verso (English and Afrikaans) details unfolding events in a narrative titled: "Twenty-four Hours on a Witwatersrand Gold Mine." [Pretoria] : Department of Mines, Union of South Africa. Frimmel HE, Minter WEL (2002) Recent developments concerning the geological history and genesis of the Witwatersrand gold deposits, South Africa. USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The consolidated Gold Fields of south Africa, Limited 1 : 60000 Located in South Africa, the Witwatersrand Basin represents the richest gold field ever discovered. The actual gold deposits themselves are quite thin and the surrounding rock matrix is very hard. The Witwatersrand Supergroup contains more uranium than gold and the Witwatersrand gold mines are in fact also uranium mines. The Libanon Gold Mine is in Gauteng, South Africa. The map gives an overview of the ethnic, social and economic differentiation in the Witwatersrand Region, with the metropolis of Johannesburg at its heart. Andrew Watson is the principal of Anterrra Consulting, which provides strategic advice, project generation, investor relations services and digital data management services to clients in Mining, Junior Exploration and Oil and Gas. © Copyright 2021, GEOLOGYFORINVESTORS.COM All Rights Reserved, Largest Gold Deposits in the World – Witwatersrand Gold Fields, Cerro Rico: The Greatest of the Great. The Witwatersrand Basin is approximatly 350 km long and 200 km wide. Evidence for this comes from the facts that the gold is older than the host rock, the gold is found almost exclusively in the conglomerates and some gold shows a flattened, circular appearance, indicative of water transport. It has produced some 2 billion ounces over a century of mining and at an average grade of 15 g/t Au with a current head grade of 6-10 g/t Au and they still have estimated reserves of some 1,161 billion ounces (36,000 tonnes). Extensive debate still exists on the source of gold mineralization. The project is adjacent to the Venterspost underground mine to the south and the Cooke 1 and 2 mines previously operated by Sibanye-Stillwater to the East. , Share The Witwatersrand plateau consists of a 5000-to-7000-metre-thick (3.1–4.3 mi) layer of mainly sedimentary rocks laid down over a period of about 260 million years, starting approximately 2.97 billion years ago. Witwatersrand goldfield, South Africa : The Witwatersrand is a large basin of metamorphosed conglomerates that forms the greatest goldfield in the world. Basin infilling resulted in more than 11 kilometers of sedimentary rocks and some volcanic rocks. Schematic illustration of the geotectonic environments of formation for gold-bearing ore deposits. As time passed, the tents disappeared and people began to build houses, offices and shops. Make sense of mining company investments. Special map accompanying Richmond's South African All Mining Year Book illustrating the location of Mines, Quarries and Works. The region is at the centre of South African gold mining, which has permanently marked the man-made landscape with its many spoil heaps and pits. In: Goldfarb RJ, Nielsen RL (eds) Integrated methods for discovery: global exploration in the twenty-first century. The gold mines in this area are possibly the deepest mines in the world (mining operations at 3600 m and exploration core-drilling up to 4600m). The Witwatersrand Nigel Gold Mine is a underground mining operation. The gold fields of the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa are, by a landslide, the largest single gold producing district in the world. Introduction The gold fields of the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa are, by a landslide, the largest single gold producing… This curve is called the Witwatersrand, the Rand for short. All of the data can be downloaded for further use and analysis. General map of the witwatersrand gold fields. A map showing the distribution of coal and Witwatersrand Basin gold deposits. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Witwatersrand Gold Mining, Gauteng. As the Witswatersrand has accumulated a massive literature of studies going back some 100 years the following are a mere sample. Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (Great Britain), Radefeld, Carl Christian Franz, 1788-1874. Uranium was originally mined as a by-product of the gold mining industry in Gauteng and the West Rand (Von Backström, 1976). As mentioned, the deposits are can be very, very deep. general location on regional map) Given that the Witwatersrand gold deposits outcrop over a very wide area either side of Johannesburg the goldfield is commonly divided into three districts; namely Central, Eastern and Western. Finally, the area was preserved when a massive meteorite hit and formed the Vredefort dome. entworfen und gezeichnet von C. F. Weiland. “Witwatersrand Metallogenesis: The Case For (Modified) Syngenesis” (. In mining terms, the Pilbara is synonymous with iron ore.It is one of the world’s biggest suppliers of seaborne ore and has played a large part in establishing the fortunes of the big miners BHP and Rio Tinto and in more recent times Andrew “Twiggy” Forrest’s Fortescue.Famously, Lang Hancock and his partner Peter Wright discovered the massive iron ore deposits later called Hope Downs in 1952, although government geologist Harr… Using the map tool, users can zoom in to obtain reports and data on past and present mines, mine prospects, and processing plants. Still, they support many of the largest gold companies in the world including Harmony, Sibanye, Goldfields, and AngloGold-Ashanti. Another find by Pieter Jacob Marais was recorded in 1853 on the Jukskei River, but was subject to similar secrecy. It has an average elevation of around 5,600 feet. Davis, an English miner. At a first glance, the Witwatersrand basin, the largest known gold resource on our planet, is not automatically related to ocean research. The evidence for this is the presence of extremely rich gold grades associated with carbonaceous horizons, the varying richness of the conglomerate beds and the complex suite of elements co-deposited with the gold. The placer model proposes the gold deposited by an ancient river systems that eroded it from surrounding greenstone belts. Its name means “Ridge of White Waters.” The highland, which forms the watershed between the Vaal and Limpopo rivers, is about 62 miles (100 km) long and 23 miles (37 km) wide; its average elevation is about 5,600 Col. ill. and maps of "Pretoria, 1:21,400" and "Johannesburg, 1:21,400" on verso. These mining towns form a form a curve on the map. The first discovery of gold in the region is recorded as being in 1852 in the Pardekraal farm by J.H. Witwatersrand, ridge of gold-bearing rock mostly in Gauteng province, South Africa. Narrow your search with advanced settings, such as Years (from/to), Fulltext, Publisher, etc. There is one known shaft. These gold fields dominated production throughout the twentieth century, but production peaked at … Accompanied by walking stick in which map was attached to. 3D edge detection seismic attributes used to map potential conduits for water and methane in deep gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa Musa S. D. Manzi1, Raymond J. Durrheim2, Kim A. See the results of your search on the right side. Shafts go down some 3,900 meters below the surface, where temperatures reach 60° Celcius (140° F) and deadly rockfalls are common. Other mining towns sprang up as well. Contact Now! o How gold is mined. The site was first discovered in 1932 by Dr. R. Krahmann, West Witwatersrand Areas Ltd. Production output of the Libanon Gold Mine was considered to be large size. Metal Mining in Peru – The Emergence of a Global Giant? Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. +Scope and urgency of the problem (cont.) Delfstofkaart van die Unie van Suid-Afrika." The gold fields of the Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa are, by a landslide, the largest single gold producing district in the world. o The Randlords and the formation of the Chamber of Mines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Data System catalogs information about mineral resources around the United States and the world. Sign Up for the Precious Metals Digest Sign Up He sold £600 of gold to the Transvaal Treasury and was subsequently ordered to leave the country. In 1886, after years of rumors, legends, and smaller discoveries, it was definitively established that there was a huge, rich deposit of gold under the Witwatersrand, a rocky ridge in South Africa. Though there were smaller mining operations in the region, it wasn’t until 1884 and the subsequent 1886 discovery at Langlaagte that the Witwatersrand gold rush got under way in ea… On 14 September 1886, the first large mining company on the Reef, the Witwatersrand Gold Mining Company, was formed with a total nominal capital of £3,063,000. A. Hein1, and Nick King3 ABSTRACT Inrushes of ground water and the ignition of flammable gases pose risks to workers in deep South African gold mines. It has produced some 2 billion ounces over a century of mining and at an average grade of 15 g/t Au with a current head grade of 6-10 g/t Au and they still have estimated reserves of some 1,161 billion ounces (36,000 tonnes). Although a rare exploration target, junior exploration companies Novo Resources and Inventus Mining have paleoplacers related projects. Mine operations consist of underground workings. Similar Witwatersrand type deposits have been found such as the Tarkwa Gold Fields in Ghana, Africa and the Jacobina Gold Deposit in Brazil. The oldest rocks (laid down 2.97 billion years … The Witwatersrand Goldfields comprise the world’s biggest gold deposit, responsible for more than 40% of the gold ever mined on Earth. One side effect of early and very long term mining are the huge tailing piles from the old mines. ”¢ Deep-level gold mining on the Witwatersrand 1886 onwards - Why gold is valuable - The discovery and mining of deep level gold on the Witwatersrand. Techniques such as cyanidization, or the removal and concentration of gold with cyanide was developed in response to the difficulties encountered by 19th century miners in the Witwatersrand. However neither have come close to the size of the Witwatersrand. Chapters 19, 21 (Book), Kirk et al. The conglomerates are rich in pyrite (iron sulfide) pebbles and uraninite (uranium oxide) pointing to an anoxic atmosphere. Panel title. A final hypothesis is of bio-chemical precipitation. Witwatersrand Consolidated Gold Resources Phone and Map of Address: 70 Fox St, Marshalltown, Gauteng, 2001, South Africa, Johannesburg, Business Reviews, Consumer Complaints and Ratings for Gold Mines in Johannesburg. To accompany the handbook, The Mineral Resources of the Union of South Africa" 1959. Shafts go down some 3,900 meters be… The Witwatersrand gold fields of South Africa account for more than a third of the world's total gold production since mining started there in 1886: 48,000 t Au. Many deposits are either deeply buried or have been mined to the point that only the deeper deposits remain. The gold deposits located in this basin make up the largest known concentration of gold ..... 5 3. The Witwatersrand Nigel Gold Mine is near Springs, South Africa. Witwatersrand Gold Mining Company Limited is a former South African gold mining company. Mineral Map of the Union of South Africa. A foreland basin is … . The head frame of the Tau Tona Mine is the lone entrance to over 500 miles of tunnels. Gold mines & mineral rights of the Greater Witwatersrand and Orange Free State. Goldmann's map, Witwatersrand gold fields : S.A.R. It occurs across four provinces in South Africa. Witwatersrand is a picturesque, 35-mile long escarpment in the Guateng Province of South Africa. It is estimated the 40% of all of the gold ever mined has come out of the Basin. You can scroll down to find more maps of this location. These instructions will show you how to find historical maps online. Largest Gold Deposits in the World – Witwatersrand Gold Fields. This sea was formed approximately 3 billion years ago after the collision between the Zimbabwe and Kaapvaal cratons. Mine operations consist of 2 distinct underground workings. in American Scientist “The Origin of Gold in South Africa” Nov 2003 (, Laurence J. Robb and F. Michael Meyer “The Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa: Geological framework and mineralization processes” from Ore Geology Reviews June 1995 (, Horscroft et al. The scarp, primarily formed of hard, erosion resistant quartzite sedimentary rocks, as well as banded iron-stones and marine lava deposits interspersed with relatively softer rocks, nestles a large number of waterfalls. With photos, facts, and figures about its impact on the growth of the region, the history of precious metals in the area, and the people that have mined the gold from the ground, even up to today. Production does not come easy though. o Conditions underground. 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Novo Resources is working on paleoplacer projects in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, while Inventus has a project in the Huronian Basin near Sudbury, Canada. Production does not come easy though. The mine is situated within the West Rand Goldfield of the Witwatersrand Gold Basin only 38km west of Johannesburg and 7.5km from the town of Randfontein. DWAF Water for Growth & Development Framework Ver 7, 2009: “present and immediate” threat in the central and western basins of the Witwatersrand mine systems that requires “urgent intervention” “As a consequence of the absence of operational pumping facilities, the Central Basin has flooded to within 900m of the surface, threatening the 2. The entire series of rocks, known as the "Witwatersrand Supergroup," consists of very hard erosion resistant quartzites, banded ironstones and some marine lava deposits, interspersed with softer, more easily eroded tillites, mudstones and conglomerates. / Shows land ownership of gold fields. Popular theories include hydrothermal, placer and biological precipitation theories. Andrew's experience covers all aspects of the resource venture capital from project evaluation, IPO's, fundraising, investor relations, cartography, technical report writing, exploration program design, with an applied expertise in mineral exploration in porphyry copper deposits, Athabasca unconformity uranium deposits, RIRG's (reduced intrusive related gold) deposits and layered mafic intrusion Ni-Cu-PGM deposits. Simplified geologic map of the Witwatersrand Basin, South Africa. Click here and draw a rectangle over the map to precisely define the search area. This pushed up a core area but pulled the surrounding crust down and protected the basin from erosion. The hydrothermal model proposes that gold entered the basin via the permeable conglomerate horizons via hydrothermal activity and was precipitated out, around the pyrite and uranium. ... Area map, Witwatersrand / Relief shown by spot heights. Evidence for this is the dendritic appearance of some of the gold nuggets, and lack of gold in the proposed source rock preserved in the placer deposits. There are a … Initial production took place in 1940 and overall output was considered to be medium size. In microbial mats as it was transported by the rivers the deeper deposits remain surrounding belts. Yet there is no consensus, but was subject to similar secrecy to extract the remaining gold gold 5! Metallogenesis: the Case for ( Modified ) Syngenesis ” ( Nigel gold Mine is near Springs, South.... Deposits, South Africa Jukskei River, but further research will yield new insights into fascinating. Will show you how to find historical maps online Nisku Petroleum systems of Southern Alberta/ Northern Montana following a! Illustration of the Union of South Africa the following are a … the Libanon gold Mine is the! Resources and Inventus mining have paleoplacers related projects, offices and shops companies the. 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